ARCs (Autonomous Robotic Carriers) by Servus Intralogistics are small moving units in warehouse systems and can now be found across storage and production facilities in various companies. These autonomous swarm robots adapt to whatever they are needed for, and help save time, money, and effort.  Simply put, they supply picking stations and production lines with materials. Thanks to their decentralized nature, potential failures in the warehouse system are virtually eliminated.

The inherent flexibility and agility of small transport systems is made possible by intelligent robotic technology, but this in turn banks on a reliable energy supply. Charging in 6-8 seconds several hundred times a day, a lot is asked of this battery pack and its life span is stretched to the limit. Servus Intralogistics encountered problems with their old battery packs, leading them to contact e.battery systems. The possible optimizations were manifold, but the task was clear: to develop an intelligent Battery Management System (BMS) to replace existing battery technology while fulfilling complex prerequisites:
  • Servus ARCs and vehicle control
    should remain the same
  • Existing chargers should remain usable
    (despite a different cell chemistry)
  • Mechanical casing with simple insertion mechanism
  • Accurate calculation of State of Health (capacity)
  • Accurate calculation of State of Charge
    to within 0.5% (charging state)
  • Intelligent control of battery monitors
    and protective circuits
  • Updates via HP battery charger
    should be possible
  • Bidirectional communication
    between battery and HP battery charger
    (for updates und checks)

New Battery Tech, Same Setting

The key facet of this redesign was the new controller card as part of the integrated BMS. It needed to work simultaneously with 12S1P and 12S2P packs, while improving performance, life span, and charge cycles. Christopher Schöpf, project leader and Sales Director of, explains: “We managed to adapt a fundamentally different lithium technology (LiFePo4) to a more suitable lithium tech (NMC) – and all without needing to change existing infrastructure such as chargers or vehicle control systems.”

The battery tech for these transport systems was trimmed down in the name of increased durability. The batteries used in Servus ARCs are now able to precisely monitor their conditions, optimize efficiency through features such as deep sleep phases, and show exact charging status. These new features boost battery performance by maximizing charging cycles during operation and minimizing self-discharging during rest periods.



Monitored Values:

  • Battery voltage (mV)
  • Voltage of individual cells (mV)
  • Cell voltage difference (mV)
  • Charging current (mA)
  • Discharge current (mA)
  • Internal impedance of the pack (mΩ)
  • Temperature (°C)
  • SoC (State of Charge) (%)
  • Number of battery cycles
  • Capacity (mAh)

Configurable Values:

  • Charging current (mA)
  • Maximum temperature while charging (°C)
  • Maximum temperature while discharging (°C)
  • SoC (State of Charge) (%)
  • Discharge cut-off voltage (mV)
  • Voltage compensation, capacity, V-difference
  • Max. current protection (mA)
  • Max. voltage protection (mV)
  • Max. permissible cell voltage difference (mV)
  • Reserve energy (mAh)

Mobile Transport Robots and Systems

The Servus ARCs (Autonomous Robotic Carrier) transport robots are one of innumerable ways of increasing productivity in industry via transportable solutions. In many companies, driverless forklifts, haulers, and the like – also known as automated guided vehicles (AGVs) – are increasingly automating logistics processes. These improve the efficiency, speed, and cost effectiveness of a firm, while simultaneously reducing error rates – a truly win-win situation. However, it is crucial that driverless transport systems can move around flexibly and reliably. Our lithium battery solutions, responsible for powering these new transport robots, tick all boxes.



  • Making transport robots safer (e.g. thanks to a metal casing)
  • Plentiful energy supply, even with heavy loads
  • Improved efficiency through lithium technology and BMS
  • Small, light, and compact light batteries
  • Optimal power density and maximum safety
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